By J.L. Arpigny, J. Coyette, S. Davail, G. Feller, E. Fonze, E.C. Foulkes, J.-M. Frere, R. Fujii, S. Genicot, C. Gerday, B. Joris, J. Lamotte-Brasseur, J.N. Maina, E. Narinx, M. Nguyen-Disteche, N. Oshima, A. Vairengo, Z. Zekhnini
ADVANCES IN COMPARATIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL body structure is helping biologists, physiologists, and biochemists preserve song of the large literature in thefield. delivering complete, built-in experiences and sound, severe, and provocative summaries, this sequence is a needs to for all energetic researchers in environmental and comparative body structure. the current quantity comprises six reports on: - Motile actions of Fish Chromatophores. - Epithelial delivery of Heavy Metals. - Heavy steel Cytotoxicity in Marine Organisms. - Comparative Pulmonary Morphology and Morphometry. - Molecular variations in Resistance to Penicillins. - Molecular variations of Enzymes From Thermophilic and Psychrophilic Organisms.
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2 Melanin-Concentrating Hormone It has long been postulated that the chromatophores of lower vertebrates are under the influence of two hormones with reciprocal functions (Pickford and Atz 1957; Warning 1963; Baker and Ball 1975; Baker 1991). The hormone that disperses pigment is, of course, MSH as discussed above. The antagonistic hormone was first demonstrated in the pituitary, as well as in the hypothalamus, of the siluroid catfish Silurus asotus by Enami (1955). He referred to this principle as "melanophore-concentrating hormone" or "MCH".
Factors Influencing Motile Activities of Fish Chromatophores 35 Spontaneous quantal leakage of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic element is a rather common event, which can be confirmed electrophysiologically in excised tissues. The miniature endplate potentials recorded at motor endplates may be a good example of results of the spontaneous and random efflux of transmitter from motor terminals. Such events can reasonably be assumed to occur at the junctions between sympathetic neurons and chromatophores.
Working on the rainbow trout, Rodrigues and Sumpter (1984) came to the conclusion that MSH is not involved in the physiological control of color changes but may be solely involved in morphological color changes. Thus, the role played by this hormone in fish seems to vary considerably depending on the species. Recent analyses indicated that the effects of MSH on fish melanophores may be mediated by specific receptors on the effector membrane (Fujii and Miyashita 1982). Ca2+ ions are required for the action of this peptide hormone (Fujii and Miyashita 1980; Iga and Takabatake 1982).
Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology by J.L. Arpigny, J. Coyette, S. Davail, G. Feller, E. Fonze, E.C. Foulkes, J.-M. Frere, R. Fujii, S. Genicot, C. Gerday, B. Joris, J. Lamotte-Brasseur, J.N. Maina, E. Narinx, M. Nguyen-Disteche, N. Oshima, A. Vairengo, Z. Zekhnini